July 7th, 2017
Sodium is a mineral that’s essential for life. Sodium controls the amount of water in your body and maintains blood volume and blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. Too much sodium, or salt, can increase blood pressure levels. When you have a high sodium diet, the extra sodium builds up in your bloodstream and attracts water, which causes the total volume of blood inside your blood vessels to increase. With more blood flowing, blood pressure increases and over time, the walls of the blood vessels become stronger and thicker, making the space inside the vessels narrower. The heart then has to work harder to pump blood through the body. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, increases the risk for heart attack and stroke, and is a leading cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure is also linked to osteoporosis, stomach cancer and even headaches, and the extra water leads to bloating and weight gain.
The amount of sodium you eat directly affects your blood pressure and the health of your heart. U.S. dietary guidelines recommend that the average adult consume a maximum of 2,300 mgs (milligrams) of sodium a day. That’s the amount in just one teaspoon of table salt. For children and for people who are middle-aged, elderly, or African-American, or who have high blood pressure, diabetes or kidney disease, the American Heart Association recommends 1,500 mg of sodium a day. However, most Americans consume much more sodium than they should. The average American consumes about 3,400 mgs of sodium per day!
The most common form of sodium is table salt (sodium chloride – NaCl). However, only 10% of the sodium Americans consume comes from table salt. Most of the sodium we’re eating is added to our food before we buy it. Approximately 75% of sodium in the American diet is from processed, prepackaged and restaurant foods. Sodium is used to cure meats, mask off-flavors, retain moisture, and to enhance flavors. In addition to table salt, other sources of sodium in the American diet include MSG (monosodium glutamate), sodium citrate, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, baking powder, and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).
Be aware of foods that are high in sodium, even if they don’t taste salty. Hidden sources of sodium in the American diet include:
Eat less salt to lower your blood pressure. Salt preference is an acquired taste that can be unlearned. It takes about 6-8 weeks to get used to eating food with much lower quantities of salt, but once it’s done, it’s actually difficult to eat foods like potato chips because they taste way too salty. Follow these guidelines to reduce your sodium intake:
High blood pressure is a known risk factor for heart disease, stroke and other health problems. By reducing your sodium intake you can lower your blood pressure and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.
CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/salt/pdfs/sodium_dietary_guidelines.pdf
Harvard Health Publications: http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/sodium-studies-blur-picture-heart-healthy-201408157366
National Kidney Foundation: https://www.kidney.org/news/ekidney/june10/Salt_june10
June 23rd, 2017
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in adults. Cardiac arrest is an electrical malfunction in the heart that causes an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) and disrupts the flow of blood to the brain, lungs and other organs. The lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage in only a few minutes and a person could die within 8 to 10 minutes. According to the American Heart Association, about 90 percent of people who suffer cardiac arrest at home, at work or in a public location die because they don’t receive immediate CPR from someone on the scene.
CPR, or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, is a lifesaving technique that is used when someone’s breathing or heartbeat has stopped. CPR, especially if performed immediately, can double or triple a cardiac arrest victim’s chance of survival.
In emergency situations, such as in cardiac arrest or drowning, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone, untrained bystanders and medical personnel alike, begin with HANDS-ONLY CPR (chest compressions without mouth-to-mouth breaths). Even if you’re fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren’t 100 percent complete, it’s far better to do something than to do nothing at all. 75% of all cardiac arrests happen in people’s homes and the difference between doing something and doing nothing could be your loved one’s life. CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.
HANDS-ONLY CPR consists of two easy steps and is recommended for use by people who see a teen or adult suddenly collapse in an “out-of-hospital” setting, such as at home, at work or in a public location:
The American Heart Association (AHA) states that any attempt to provide CPR to a victim is better than no attempt to provide help. Don’t be afraid to act in an emergency:
LEARN HOW TO SAVE A LIFE:
Watch a 90-second Hands-Only CPR video. Hands-Only CPR is a natural introduction to CPR, and the AHA encourages everyone to learn conventional CPR as a next step. To watch the Hands-Only CPR instructional video visit: http://bit.ly/1OZ8SAY For video in Spanish visit: http://bit.ly/2r79ksg
Watch a 22 minute video for more in depth CPR training: The AHA’s 22-minute CPR Anytime™ program ( http://bit.ly/1UFSt6n ) is a very short CPR training program that you can do at home. The video provides skills training and practice that can prepare you to perform high quality chest compressions.
Take a CPR class: Take an accredited first-aid training course, which includes CPR, rescue breaths, and how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). CPR is a psychomotor skill. People who have had CPR training are more likely to give high-quality chest compressions and are more confident about their skills than those who have not been trained (or have not trained in the last 5 years). You can find a CPR class near you at: http://bit.ly/1fhNSS0
Learn CPR – you can save a life!
June 14th, 2017
World-renowned cardiologist Dr. P.K. Shah arrived in the US with $8, a suitcase, and a medical degree that cost about $70. Click on the image below to learn how he first became interested in medicine and the journey that has led him to became an internationally recognized educator and researcher in this interview from Life and Times of Leading Cardiologists.
June 9th, 2017
Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep. In sleep apnea your breathing passages becomes blocked, or the muscles that control your breathing stop moving. Either way, breathing stops, and then resumes with a gasp. In the worst cases, this can happen hundreds of times every night. This means the brain and the rest of the body may not get enough oxygen. And if left untreated, sleep apnea can result in a growing number of health problems, including:
Symptoms of Sleep Apnea: Sleep apnea often goes undiagnosed, as doctors usually can’t detect the condition during routine office visits and there isn’t a blood test that can diagnose the condition. Most people who have sleep apnea don’t know they have it, because it only occurs during sleep. A family member or bed partner might be the first to notice signs of sleep apnea. Signs and symptoms of sleep apnea include:
There are two types of sleep apnea:
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The most common type of sleep apnea is Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). In this condition, the soft tissue in the back of the throat collapses or becomes blocked during sleep, causing shallow breathing or breathing pauses. Oxygen levels drop when breathing slows and the body responds by releasing epinephrine (also called adrenaline), a stress hormone. When this happens over and over, adrenaline levels remain high, leading to high blood pressure. “Over time, OSA exposes the heart and circulation to harmful stimuli that may cause or contribute to the progression of most cardiovascular diseases,” explains Dr. Atul Malhotra, associate professor at Harvard Medical School and sleep specialist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. OSA affects an estimated 15 million adult Americans and is present in a large proportion of people who have hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat).
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a less common type of sleep apnea. This disorder occurs when the area of your brain that controls your breathing doesn’t send the correct signals to your breathing muscles. CSA can be caused by a number of conditions that affect the ability of your brain-stem, the area that links your brain to your spinal cord and controls many functions such as heart rate and breathing, to control your breathing.
Who is at Risk for Sleep Apnea?
Treatment: Sleep apnea is a chronic condition that requires long-term management. Lifestyle changes, mouthpieces, breathing devices, and surgery can successfully treat sleep apnea in many people.
Lifestyle Changes: If you have mild sleep apnea, some changes in daily activities or habits might be all the treatment you need.
Mouthpieces: A mouthpiece, sometimes called an oral appliance, may help some people who have mild sleep apnea. A dentist or orthodontist can make a custom-fit plastic mouthpiece for treating sleep apnea. The mouthpiece will help keep your airways open while you sleep.
Breathing Devices: A CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) is the most common treatment for moderate to severe sleep apnea in adults. A CPAP machine uses a mask that fits over your mouth and nose, or just over your nose. The machine gently blows air into your throat. The pressure from the air helps keep your airway open while you sleep.
Surgery: Some people who have sleep apnea might benefit from surgery. Surgery is done to widen breathing passages by shrinking, stiffening, or removing excess tissue in the mouth and throat or resetting the lower jaw.
If you, or a loved one, is having trouble breathing at night, see a doctor. Life style changes can help a person with mild sleep apnea, and in more severe cases, there are treatments that can keep the breathing passages open and normalize oxygen levels.
May 26th, 2017
Does a healthy mouth equal a healthy heart? The indications appear to be yes! Doctors and researchers have been talking about and studying the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease for nearly two decades. While the exact details of the cause and effect relationship are still under investigation, many researchers (including Dr. P.K. Shah) and government agencies have come to the conclusion there is a link between periodontal disease and an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. For this reason, maintaining optimal oral hygiene is an important component of not only heart health, but your overall health and well being.
What is gum or periodontal disease? Gum disease is an inflammation of the gums that affects the bone that surrounds and supports the teeth. Gum disease begins when a sticky, bacteria-laden film known as plaque builds up around your teeth. Plaque forms when starches and sugars in food interact with the bacteria normally found in your mouth. Plaque that is not removed by regular brushing and flossing can harden and form tartar. The bacteria in the plaque and tartar can cause a mild gum disease called gingivitis: an inflammation where the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. If not treated, gingivitis can advance to periodontal disease (periodontitis). In periodontitis the gums pull away from the root of the tooth, creating a tiny pocket of bacteria filled pus that gradually widens. Eventually, infection and inflammation will attack the tissue that holds the tooth to the jawbone, which can cause the tooth to loosen and possibly fall out.
Nearly half the adult population in the US is affected by gum disease. Gum disease can often be painless, so it is important to see your dentist right away if you have any of the following symptoms:
Your gums are very vascular, meaning they’re full of blood vessels. When you have gum disease, the infected pockets of germy pus allow bacteria and other toxins to spread below the gum line and move into the bloodstream. Some studies indicate that when the bacteria from gum disease enter the bloodstream, they help to form the fatty deposits called plaque in the heart blood vessels. Over time, the plaque builds up and narrows and hardens your arteries. This results in atherosclerosis, a heart disease. Atherosclerosis limits the blood flow to your heart, putting you at greater risk for heart attack and stroke.
Though not conclusive, some studies also suggest that the bacteria from gum disease in your bloodstream can trigger inflammation throughout the body (systemic inflammation). Inflammation is the body’s natural response to an infection or injury. When these bacteria reach the heart, they can attach themselves to any damaged area and cause inflammation. According to the Mayo Clinic, this can result in endocarditis, an infection of the inner lining of the heart. The American Heart Association has also stated that there is a causal association between inflammation caused by oral bacteria and cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) and stroke. Controlling periodontal disease may decrease systemic inflammation and reduce the risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
The health of your mouth can affect the health of your entire body. In addition to possible connections with heart disease and stroke, gum disease has also been closely linked to premature birth, diabetes, and other chronic health problems. In the mouth, gum disease can lead to pain, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss. Our teeth are essential to healthy eating; when we lose the ability to chew well, it affects our overall nutrition and our body. Our teeth are integral to our smile and the structure of our face; tooth loss or discomfort with the way our mouth looks can lead to a loss of self-esteem and confidence. Follow these guidelines to maintain proper oral health and reduce your risk for gum disease:
• Quit smoking. Smokers are seven times more likely to get gingivitis, periodontitis and oral cancers than nonsmokers.
• Manage diabetes; high blood sugar can lead to infections. Diabetes can also lead to dry mouth, poorly healing gums and thrush (a yeast infection in the mouth and throat). Those who have diabetes and also smoke are 20 times more likely to have thrush or periodontal disease.
• Get regular preventive care checkups with your dentist. Proper plaque control consists of professional cleanings every six months.
• Brush your teeth a minimum of twice daily
• Floss your teeth regularly
• Make sure your dentures fit properly
• Eat a balanced diet, and reduce sugary and processed foods and drinks
• Manage your weight
• Control your blood pressure
• Reduce stress
• Get more exercise
Your body is the sum of many parts and it is important for your overall health to maintain each of those parts. Gum disease can be a sign of the general health of your body. By taking care of your oral health, you are also taking care of your heart. Be aware of the symptoms of gum disease, brush and floss daily, and get regular dental check-ups. Your smile and your heart will thank you!
May 19th, 2017
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. This system transports oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body. The cardiovascular system is powered by the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps over 5 liters of blood throughout the body every minute.
To learn more about how the circulatory system works, please refer to an article from Pacific Medical Training, using the following link: